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README
Haskell  randvars
This library provides the Rand
applicative monad.
This monad represent computations that can return values at random.
The distribution of values can be specified using provided functions.
A monad transformer, RandT
, is also available.
The class RandPicker
allows to pick an element at random out of Rand
. Instances for Rand
, RandT
and IO
are provided.
Creation of random variables
rand
rand
returns a random element, following distribution of underlying Random
(from System.Random
) instance.
decision :: Rand Bool
decision = rand
inRange
inRange
returns an element at random from the specified range. The distribution follows the one of the underlying Random
instance.
die :: Rand Int
die = inRange (1, 6)
oneOf
oneOf
models a random variable that returns one with equal probabilities of the elements of the list.
color :: Rand String
color = oneOf ["red", "green", "blue"]
If the list contains n
elements, constructing the random variable takes O(n)
time. Picking an element out of the random variable is constant time.
fromFreqs
fromFreqs
allows to specify the frequency of each element. Note that the frequencies don't have to add up to 1
. Negative frequencies are considered null.
biaisedDie :: Rand Int
biaisedDie = fromFreqs [1 `withFreq` 1.2,
2 `withFreq` 1.1,
3 `withFreq` 1,
4 `withFreq` 1,
5 `withFreq` 0.9,
6 `withFreq` 0.8]
If the list contains n
elements, constructing the random variable takes O(n)
time. Picking an element out of the random variable takes O(log(n))
time.
If the sum of frequencies is 0
, the behavior is unspecified.
Note that withFreq
is simply an alias for (,)
, the pair constructor.
Picking value from random variables.
Any monad that has an instance of RandPicker
can pick an element at random out of a random variable. To do so, simple use the pick
function.
pick :: RandPicker m => Rand a > m a
IO
, Rand
and RandT
, are instances of RandPicker
.
MonadRand
For convenience, MonadRand
can be used to express the contraint that the RandPicker
must also be a Monad
.
Meaning that, instead of:
foo :: (RandPicker m, Monad m) => ...
One can write:
foo :: (MonadRand m) => ...
Code example
The following is a more complete example on the Casino theme!
import Control.Monad.Random
import Control.Applicative
import Control.Monad
data Slot = Lemon  Cherry  Strawberry  Orange  Bar  Seven deriving (Enum, Show)
data Combination = Combination Slot Slot Slot deriving Show
fairSlot = oneOf [Lemon .. Seven]
fairCombination = Combination <$> fairSlot <*> fairSlot <*> fairSlot
biasedSlot = fromFreqs [Lemon `withFreq` 1,
Cherry `withFreq` 1,
Strawberry `withFreq` 1.2,
Orange `withFreq` 1.1,
Bar `withFreq` 0.9,
Seven `withFreq` 0.8]
biasedCombination = Combination <$> biasedSlot <*> biasedSlot <*> biasedSlot
aTripToAMachine = do
combination < fromFreqs [fairCombination `withFreq` 10,
biasedCombination `withFreq` 5]
rounds < inRange (5, 50)
replicateM rounds combination
aTripToTheCasino = do
trips < fmap (*3) $ inRange (1, 10)
fmap concat $ replicateM trips aTripToAMachine
main = pick aTripToTheCasino >>= print