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Programming language: Haskell
License: LicenseRef-LGPL
Tags: Data Structures     Recursion    

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"Ties the knot" on a given set of structures that reference each other by keys - replaces the keys with their respective values. Takes Map k (v k) and converts into Map k v' where v' is the fixed point of v.

This is accomplished by functions

type RefMap k v = Map k (v k)

tie :: (Ord k, F.Foldable (Base v), Unfoldable v)
    => RefMap k (Base v) -> Either (TieError k) (Map k v)
tie' :: (Ord k, Unfoldable v)
    => RefMap k (Base v) -> Map k v

The first variant performs consistency checking (this is why it needs Foldable), the other just fails with an error if a key is missing in the map.


Alice, Bob and the cat

Suppose that Alice loves Bob and her cat, Bob loves Alice and the cat loves only itself. Imagine that we're reading this information from some kind of a text file, and store the intermediate data into a list. We would like to create a data structure which would contain these cyclic dependencies:

data Person = Person { name :: String, loves :: [Person] }

-- Define a variant of Person where the recursive type
-- is given as a parameter and the embedding function.

data Person' t = Person' { _name :: String, _loves :: [t] }
type instance Base Person = Person'
instance Unfoldable Person where
  embed ~(Person' n ps)    = Person n ps

-- The easisest way to get 'Foldable' + 'Functor' is to implement
-- 'Traversable' and then just use the default implementations.
instance T.Traversable Person' where
    traverse f (Person' n ns) = Person' n <$> T.traverse f ns
instance Functor Person' where
    fmap = T.fmapDefault
instance F.Foldable Person' where
    foldMap = T.foldMapDefault

-- Let's create a person with cicrular dependencies:
alice :: Person
alice = fromJust . Map.lookup "Alice" . 
            tie' . Map.fromList . map nameValue $ lst
    lst = [ Person' "Alice" ["Bob", "cat"]
          , Person' "Bob"   ["Alice"]
          -- you may disagree, but the cat thinks of itself as Person
          , Person' "cat"   ["cat"]
    nameValue loves = (_name loves, loves)

Circular lists

There is a well known task of converting a list into a circular structure with no beginning/end:

data DList a = DLNode (DList a) a (DList a)

mkDList :: [a] -> DList a

We can accomplish this using tie-knot by simply numbering the fields of a list and then letting the library to tie the knot:

data DList' a t = DLNode' t a t
type instance Base (DList a) = DList' a
instance Unfoldable (DList a) where
  embed ~(DLNode' u x v) = DLNode u x v

instance Functor (DList' n) where
    fmap = T.fmapDefault
instance T.Traversable (DList' n) where
    traverse f (DLNode' u n v) = DLNode' <$> f u <*> pure n <*> f v
instance F.Foldable (DList' n) where
    foldMap = T.foldMapDefault

mkDList :: [a] -> DList a
mkDList xs =fromJust . Map.lookup 0 . tie' $ dict
    dict = Map.fromList 
            . map (\(i, x) -> (i, DLNode' (pre i) x (nxt i)))
            . zip [0..] $ xs
    n = length xs
    pre i = (i + n - 1) `rem` n
    nxt i = (i + 1) `rem` n


Copyright 2012, Petr Pudlák

Contact: petr.pudlak.name.


This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU Lesser General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License along with this program. If not, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

*Note that all licence references and agreements mentioned in the tie-knot README section above are relevant to that project's source code only.