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Programming language: Haskell
License: GNU General Public License v3.0 only
Tags: Development    
Latest version: v1.19.0

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README

Haskell Dockerfile Linter

Build Status GPL-3 licensed GitHub release Github downloads

A smarter Dockerfile linter that helps you build best practice Docker images. The linter parses the Dockerfile into an AST and performs rules on top of the AST. It stands on the shoulders of ShellCheck to lint the Bash code inside RUN instructions.

:globe_with_meridians: Check the online version on hadolint.github.io/hadolint [Screenshot](screenshot.png)

How to use

You can run hadolint locally to lint your Dockerfile.

hadolint <Dockerfile>
hadolint --ignore DL3003 --ignore DL3006 <Dockerfile> # exclude specific rules
hadolint --trusted-registry my-company.com:500 <Dockerfile> # Warn when using untrusted FROM images

Docker comes to the rescue, providing an easy way how to run hadolint on most platforms. Just pipe your Dockerfile to docker run:

docker run --rm -i hadolint/hadolint < Dockerfile
# OR
docker run --rm -i ghcr.io/hadolint/hadolint < Dockerfile

or using Podman:

podman run --rm -i docker.io/hadolint/hadolint < Dockerfile
# OR
podman run --rm -i ghcr.io/hadolint/hadolint < Dockerfile

or using Windows PowerShell:

cat .\Dockerfile | docker run --rm -i hadolint/hadolint

Install

You can download prebuilt binaries for OSX, Windows and Linux from the latest release page. However, if this does not work for you, please fall back to container (Docker), brew or source installation.

On OSX, you can use brew to install hadolint.

brew install hadolint

On Windows, you can use scoop to install hadolint.

scoop install hadolint

As mentioned earlier, hadolint is available as a container image:

docker pull hadolint/hadolint
# OR
docker pull ghcr.io/hadolint/hadolint

If you need a container with shell access, use the Debian or Alpine variants:

docker pull hadolint/hadolint:latest-debian
# OR 
docker pull hadolint/hadolint:latest-alpine
# OR
docker pull ghcr.io/hadolint/hadolint:latest-debian
# OR
docker pull ghcr.io/hadolint/hadolint:latest-alpine

You can also build hadolint locally. You need Haskell and the stack build tool to build the binary.

git clone https://github.com/hadolint/hadolint \
&& cd hadolint \
&& stack install

If you want the VS Code Hadolint extension to use Hadolint in a container, you can use the following wrapper script:

#!/bin/bash
dockerfile="$1"
shift
docker run --rm -i hadolint/hadolint hadolint "[email protected]" - < "$dockerfile"

CLI

hadolint --help
hadolint - Dockerfile Linter written in Haskell

Usage: hadolint [-v|--version] [--no-fail] [--no-color] [-c|--config FILENAME] 
                [-V|--verbose] [-f|--format ARG] [DOCKERFILE...] 
                [--error RULECODE] [--warning RULECODE] [--info RULECODE] 
                [--style RULECODE] [--ignore RULECODE] 
                [--trusted-registry REGISTRY (e.g. docker.io)] 
                [--require-label LABELSCHEMA (e.g. maintainer:text)] 
                [--strict-labels] [-t|--failure-threshold THRESHOLD]
  Lint Dockerfile for errors and best practices

Available options:
  -h,--help                Show this help text
  -v,--version             Show version
  --no-fail                Don't exit with a failure status code when any rule
                           is violated
  --no-color               Don't colorize output
  -c,--config FILENAME     Path to the configuration file
  -V,--verbose             Enables verbose logging of hadolint's output to
                           stderr
  -f,--format ARG          The output format for the results [tty | json |
                           checkstyle | codeclimate | gitlab_codeclimate |
                           codacy] (default: tty)
  --error RULECODE         Make the rule `RULECODE` have the level `error`
  --warning RULECODE       Make the rule `RULECODE` have the level `warning`
  --info RULECODE          Make the rule `RULECODE` have the level `info`
  --style RULECODE         Make the rule `RULECODE` have the level `style`
  --ignore RULECODE        A rule to ignore. If present, the ignore list in the
                           config file is ignored
  --trusted-registry REGISTRY (e.g. docker.io)
                           A docker registry to allow to appear in FROM
                           instructions
  --require-label LABELSCHEMA (e.g. maintainer:text)
                           The option --require-label=label:format makes
                           Hadolint check that the label `label` conforms to
                           format requirement `format`
  --strict-labels          Do not permit labels other than specified in
                           `label-schema`
  -t,--failure-threshold THRESHOLD
                           Exit with failure code only when rules with a
                           severity above THRESHOLD are violated. Accepted
                           values: [error | warning | info | style | ignore |
                           none] (default: info)

Configure

Configuration files can be used globally or per project. By default, hadolint looks for a configuration file named .hadolint.yaml or .hadolint.yml in the current directory.

hadolint full yaml config file schema

failure-threshold: string               # name of threshold level (error | warning | info | style | ignore | none)                
format: string                          # Output format (tty | json | checkstyle | codeclimate | gitlab_codeclimate | codacy)
ignored: [string]                       # list of rules
label-schema:                           # See Linting Labels below for specific label-schema details
  author: string                        # Your name
  contact: string                       # email address
  created: timestamp                    # rfc3339 datetime
  version: string                       # semver
  documentation: string                 # url
  git-revision: string                  # hash
  license: string                       # spdx
no-color: boolean                       # true | false
no-fail: boolean                        # true | false
override:
  error: [string]                       # list of rules
  warning: [string]                     # list of rules
  info: [string]                        # list of rules
  style: [string]                       # list of rules
strict-labels: boolean                  # true | false
trustedRegistries: string | [string]    # registry or list of registries

hadolint supports specifying the ignored rules using a configuration file. The configuration file should be in yaml format. This is one valid configuration file as an example:

ignored:
  - DL3000
  - SC1010

Additionally, hadolint can warn you when images from untrusted repositories are being used in Dockerfiles, you can append the trustedRegistries keys to the configuration file, as shown below:

ignored:
  - DL3000
  - SC1010

trustedRegistries:
  - docker.io
  - my-company.com:5000

If you want to override the severity of specific rules, you can do that too:

override:
  error:
    - DL3001
    - DL3002
  warning:
    - DL3042
    - DL3033
  info:
    - DL3032
  style:
    - DL3015

failure-threshold Exit with failure code only when rules with a severity above THRESHOLD are violated (Available in v2.6.0+)

failure-threshold: info
warning:
    - DL3042
    - DL3033
  info:
    - DL3032

The global configuration file should be placed in the folder specified by XDG_CONFIG_HOME, with the name hadolint.yaml or hadolint.yml. In summary, the following locations are valid for the configuration file, in order or preference:

  • $PWD/.hadolint.yaml
  • $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/hadolint.yaml
  • ~/.config/hadolint.yaml

In windows, the %LOCALAPPDATA% environment variable is used instead of XDG_CONFIG_HOME

Additionally, you can pass a custom configuration file in the command line with the --config option

hadolint --config /path/to/config.yaml Dockerfile

To pass a custom configuration file (using relative or absolute path) to a container, use the following command:

docker run --rm -i -v /your/path/to/hadolint.yaml:/.config/hadolint.yaml hadolint/hadolint < Dockerfile
# OR
docker run --rm -i -v /your/path/to/hadolint.yaml:/.config/hadolint.yaml ghcr.io/hadolint/hadolint < Dockerfile

Inline ignores

It is also possible to ignore rules by adding a special comment directly above the Dockerfile statement for which you want to make an exception for. Such comments look like # hadolint ignore=DL3001,SC1081. For example:

# hadolint ignore=DL3006
FROM ubuntu

# hadolint ignore=DL3003,SC1035
RUN cd /tmp && echo "hello!"

The comment "inline ignores" applies only to the statement following it.

Linting Labels

Hadolint is able to check if specific labels are present and conform to a predefined label schema. First, a label schema must be defined either via the command line:

hadolint --require-label author:text --require-label version:semver Dockerfile

or via the config file:

label-schema:
  author: text
  contact: email
  created: rfc3339
  version: semver
  documentation: url
  git-revision: hash
  license: spdx

The value of a label can be either of text, url, semver, hash or rfc3339: | Schema | Description | |:--------|:---------------------------------------------------| | text | Anything | | rfc3339 | A time, formatted according to RFC 3339 | | semver | A semantic version | | url | A URI as described in RFC 3986 | | hash | Either a short or a long Git hash | | spdx | An SPDX license identifier | | email | An email address conforming to RFC 5322 |

By default, Hadolint ignores any label that is not specified in the label schema. To warn against such additional labels, turn on strict labels, using the command line:

hadolint --strict-labels --require-label version:semver Dockerfile

or the config file:

strict-labels: true

When strict labels is enabled, but no label schema is specified, hadolint will warn if any label is present.

Note on dealing with variables in labels

It is a common pattern to fill the value of a label not statically, but rather dynamically at build time by using a variable:

FROM debian:buster
ARG VERSION="du-jour"
LABEL version="${VERSION}"

To allow this, the label schema must specify text as value for that label:

label-schema:
  version: text

Integrations

To get most of hadolint, it is useful to integrate it as a check in your CI or into your editor, or as a pre-commit hook, to lint your Dockerfile as you write it. See our [Integration][] docs.

  • [Code Review Platform Integrations][]
  • [Continuous Integrations][]
  • [Editor Integrations][]
  • [Version Control Integrations][]

Rules

An incomplete list of implemented rules. Click on the error code to get more detailed information.

  • Rules with the prefix DL are from hadolint. Have a look at Rules.hs to find the implementation of the rules.

  • Rules with the SC prefix are from ShellCheck (only the most common rules are listed, there are dozens more).

Please create an issue if you have an idea for a good rule. <!--lint disable maximum-line-length--> | Rule | Default Severity | Description | |:-------------------------------------------------------------|:-----------------|:----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------| | DL3000 | Error | Use absolute WORKDIR. | | DL3001 | Info | For some bash commands it makes no sense running them in a Docker container like ssh, vim, shutdown, service, ps, free, top, kill, mount, ifconfig. | | DL3002 | Warning | Last user should not be root. | | DL3003 | Warning | Use WORKDIR to switch to a directory. | | DL3004 | Error | Do not use sudo as it leads to unpredictable behavior. Use a tool like gosu to enforce root. | | DL3005 | Error | Do not use apt-get dist-upgrade. | | DL3006 | Warning | Always tag the version of an image explicitly. | | DL3007 | Warning | Using latest is prone to errors if the image will ever update. Pin the version explicitly to a release tag. | | DL3008 | Warning | Pin versions in apt-get install. | | DL3009 | Info | Delete the apt-get lists after installing something. | | DL3010 | Info | Use ADD for extracting archives into an image. | | DL3011 | Error | Valid UNIX ports range from 0 to 65535. | | DL3012 | Error | Multiple HEALTHCHECK instructions. | | DL3013 | Warning | Pin versions in pip. | | DL3014 | Warning | Use the -y switch. | | DL3015 | Info | Avoid additional packages by specifying --no-install-recommends. | | DL3016 | Warning | Pin versions in npm. | | DL3018 | Warning | Pin versions in apk add. Instead of apk add <package> use apk add <package>=<version>. | | DL3019 | Info | Use the --no-cache switch to avoid the need to use --update and remove /var/cache/apk/* when done installing packages. | | DL3020 | Error | Use COPY instead of ADD for files and folders. | | DL3021 | Error | COPY with more than 2 arguments requires the last argument to end with / | | DL3022 | Warning | COPY --from should reference a previously defined FROM alias | | DL3023 | Error | COPY --from cannot reference its own FROM alias | | DL3024 | Error | FROM aliases (stage names) must be unique | | DL3025 | Warning | Use arguments JSON notation for CMD and ENTRYPOINT arguments | | DL3026 | Error | Use only an allowed registry in the FROM image | | DL3027 | Warning | Do not use apt as it is meant to be a end-user tool, use apt-get or apt-cache instead | | DL3028 | Warning | Pin versions in gem install. Instead of gem install <gem> use gem install <gem>:<version> | | DL3029 | Warning | Do not use --platform flag with FROM. | | DL3030 | Warning | Use the -y switch to avoid manual input yum install -y <package> | | DL3032 | Warning | yum clean all missing after yum command. | | DL3033 | Warning | Specify version with yum install -y <package>-<version> | | DL3034 | Warning | Non-interactive switch missing from zypper command: zypper install -y | | DL3035 | Warning | Do not use zypper dist-upgrade. | | DL3036 | Warning | zypper clean missing after zypper use. | | DL3037 | Warning | Specify version with zypper install -y <package>[=]<version>. | | DL3038 | Warning | Use the -y switch to avoid manual input dnf install -y <package> | | DL3040 | Warning | dnf clean all missing after dnf command. | | DL3041 | Warning | Specify version with dnf install -y <package>-<version> | | DL3042 | Warning | Avoid cache directory with pip install --no-cache-dir <package>. | | DL3043 | Error | ONBUILD, FROM or MAINTAINER triggered from within ONBUILD instruction. | | DL3044 | Error | Do not refer to an environment variable within the same ENV statement where it is defined. | | DL3045 | Warning | COPY to a relative destination without WORKDIR set. | | DL3046 | Warning | useradd without flag -l and high UID will result in excessively large Image. | | DL3047 | Info | wget without flag --progress will result in excessively bloated build logs when downloading larger files. | | DL3048 | Style | Invalid Label Key | | DL3049 | Info | Label <label> is missing. | | DL3050 | Info | Superfluous label(s) present. | | DL3051 | Warning | Label <label> is empty. | | DL3052 | Warning | Label <label> is not a valid URL. | | DL3053 | Warning | Label <label> is not a valid time format - must be conform to RFC3339. | | DL3054 | Warning | Label <label> is not a valid SPDX license identifier. | | DL3055 | Warning | Label <label> is not a valid git hash. | | DL3056 | Warning | Label <label> does not conform to semantic versioning. | | DL3057 | IgnoreC | HEALTHCHECK instruction missing. | | DL3058 | Warning | Label <label> is not a valid email format - must be conform to RFC5322. | | DL3059 | Info | Multiple consecutive RUN instructions. Consider consolidation. | | DL3060 | Info | yarn cache clean missing after yarn install was run. | | DL4000 | Error | MAINTAINER is deprecated. | | DL4001 | Warning | Either use Wget or Curl but not both. | | DL4003 | Warning | Multiple CMD instructions found. | | DL4004 | Error | Multiple ENTRYPOINT instructions found. | | DL4005 | Warning | Use SHELL to change the default shell. | | DL4006 | Warning | Set the SHELL option -o pipefail before RUN with a pipe in it | | SC1000 | | $ is not used specially and should therefore be escaped. | | SC1001 | | This \c will be a regular 'c' in this context. | | SC1007 | | Remove space after = if trying to assign a value (or for empty string, use var='' ...). | | SC1010 | | Use semicolon or linefeed before done (or quote to make it literal). | | SC1018 | | This is a unicode non-breaking space. Delete it and retype as space. | | SC1035 | | You need a space here | | SC1045 | | It's not foo &; bar, just foo & bar. | | SC1065 | | Trying to declare parameters? Don't. Use () and refer to params as $1, $2 etc. | | SC1066 | | Don't use $ on the left side of assignments. | | SC1068 | | Don't put spaces around the = in assignments. | | SC1077 | | For command expansion, the tick should slant left (` vs ´). | | SC1078 | | Did you forget to close this double-quoted string? | | SC1079 | | This is actually an end quote, but due to next char, it looks suspect. | | SC1081 | | Scripts are case sensitive. Use if, not If. | | SC1083 | | This {/} is literal. Check expression (missing ;/\n?) or quote it. | | SC1086 | | Don't use $ on the iterator name in for loops. | | SC1087 | | Braces are required when expanding arrays, as in ${array[idx]}. | | SC1095 | | You need a space or linefeed between the function name and body. | | SC1097 | | Unexpected ==. For assignment, use =. For comparison, use [ .. ] or [[ .. ]]. | | SC1098 | | Quote/escape special characters when using eval, e.g. eval "a=(b)". | | SC1099 | | You need a space before the #. | | SC2002 | | Useless cat. Consider cmd < file | .. or cmd file | .. instead. | | SC2015 | | Note that A && B || C is not if-then-else. C may run when A is true. | | SC2026 | | This word is outside of quotes. Did you intend to 'nest '"'single quotes'"' instead'? | | SC2028 | | echo won't expand escape sequences. Consider printf. | | SC2035 | | Use ./*glob* or -- *glob* so names with dashes won't become options. | | SC2039 | | In POSIX sh, something is undefined. | | SC2046 | | Quote this to prevent word splitting | | SC2086 | | Double quote to prevent globbing and word splitting. | | SC2140 | | Word is in the form "A"B"C" (B indicated). Did you mean "ABC" or "A\"B\"C"? | | SC2154 | | var is referenced but not assigned. | | SC2155 | | Declare and assign separately to avoid masking return values. | | SC2164 | | Use cd ... || exit in case cd fails. | <!--lint enable maximum-line-length-->

Develop

If you are an experienced Haskeller, we would be very grateful if you would tear our code apart in a review.

Setup

  1. Clone repository

    git clone --recursive [email protected]:hadolint/hadolint.git
    
  2. Install the dependencies

    stack install
    

REPL

The easiest way to try out the parser is using the REPL.

# start the repl
stack repl
# overload strings to be able to use Text
:set -XOverloadedStrings
# import parser library
import Language.Docker
# parse instruction and look at AST representation
parseText "FROM debian:jessie"

Tests

Run unit tests:

stack test

Run integration tests:

./integration_test.sh

AST

Dockerfile syntax is fully described in the Dockerfile reference. Just take a look at Syntax.hs in the language-docker project to see the AST definition.

Alternatives

<!-- References -->


*Note that all licence references and agreements mentioned in the hadolint README section above are relevant to that project's source code only.