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README
Annah v1.0.0
Annah is a mediumlevel total functional programming language that compiles down to the calculus of constructions (specifically Morte).
Annah exists primarily as a reference implementation for encoding higherlevel idioms in pure lambda calculus. Many of these tricks are scattered among papers and folklore but have never been consolidated into a single focused implementation that people could learn from, experiment with, or fork for their own uses.
This project provides three separate features:
 the
annah
compiler, which compiles Annah expressions into Morte expressions  the
annah
Haskell library, used to implement theannah
compiler  the Annah Prelude, a small subset of Haskell translated to Annah code
The latest Annah Prelude is hosted online here and can be referenced directly within Annah or Morte expressions.
Quick start
 Install the
stack
tool Create the following
stack.yaml
file:$ cat > stack.yaml resolver: lts8.0 packages: [] extradeps:  annah1.0.0 <CtrlD>
stack setup
stack install annah
This creates the annah
executable under stack
's default bin
directory
(typically ~/.local/bin/
on Unixlike systems). This executable reads Annah
expressions from stdin
, typechecks them, and outputs the equivalent Morte
expression to stdout
. For example:
$ annah  morte
type Bool
data True
data False
fold if
in
type Nat
data Succ (pred : Nat)
data Zero
fold foldNat
in
let not (b : Bool) : Bool = if b Bool False True
in
let even (n : Nat) : Bool = foldNat n Bool not True
in
even (Succ (Succ (Succ Zero)))
<CtrlD>
∀(Bool : *) → ∀(True : Bool) → ∀(False : Bool) → Bool
λ(Bool : *) → λ(True : Bool) → λ(False : Bool) → False
You can also reference any expression from the Prelude directly by URL. For example, we can transform the above example to use the Prelude like this:
$ annah  morte
let even (n : http://sigil.place/prelude/annah/1.0/Nat )
: http://sigil.place/prelude/annah/1.0/Bool =
n http://sigil.place/prelude/annah/1.0/Bool
http://sigil.place/prelude/annah/1.0/Bool/not
http://sigil.place/prelude/annah/1.0/Bool/True
in
even
( http://sigil.place/prelude/annah/1.0/Nat/Succ
( http://sigil.place/prelude/annah/1.0/Nat/Succ
( http://sigil.place/prelude/annah/1.0/Nat/Succ
http://sigil.place/prelude/annah/1.0/Nat/Zero
)
)
)
<CtrlD>
∀(Bool : *) → ∀(True : Bool) → ∀(False : Bool) → Bool
λ(Bool : *) → λ(True : Bool) → λ(False : Bool) → False
You can also clone the Prelude locally and refer to expression by their relative path, too:
$ wget np nH r cutdirs=3 http://sigil.place/prelude/annah/1.0/
$ annah  morte
let even (n : ./Nat ) : ./Bool = n ./Bool ./Bool/not ./Bool/True
in even (./Nat/Succ (./Nat/Succ (./Nat/Succ ./Nat/Zero )))
<CtrlD>
∀(Bool : *) → ∀(True : Bool) → ∀(False : Bool) → Bool
λ(Bool : *) → λ(True : Bool) → λ(False : Bool) → False
annah
also provides syntactic support for certain data types, like numeric
literals, so we can shorten this further to:
$ annah  morte
let even (n : ./Nat ) : ./Bool = n ./Bool ./Bool/not ./Bool/True
in even 3
<CtrlD>
∀(Bool : *) → ∀(True : Bool) → ∀(False : Bool) → Bool
λ(Bool : *) → λ(True : Bool) → λ(False : Bool) → False
Here is another example of a list comprehension written in Annah, to illustrate Annah's support for lists and @do@ notation:
$ annah  morte
let xs : ./List ./Nat = ./List/Monad ./Nat (do ./List {
x : ./Nat < [nil ./Nat , 1, 2, 3];
y : ./Nat < [nil ./Nat , 4, 5, 6];
_ : ./Nat < ./List/pure ./Nat (./Nat/(+) x y);
})
in ./Nat/sum xs
<CtrlD>
∀(Nat : *) → ∀(Succ : ∀(pred : Nat) → Nat) → ∀(Zero : Nat) → Nat
λ(Nat : *) → λ(Succ : ∀(pred : Nat) → Nat) → λ(Zero : Nat) → Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ (Succ Zero))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))
To learn more about Annah, read the Annah tutorial.
How to contribute
Annah is mostly a reference implementation of some things that I've learned
along the way towards building a real production language. That means that I'm
less likely to improve the polish, error messages, or type inference of Annah,
since I'm dedicating those efforts to a real programming language that will
resemble Annah but provide support for highefficiency text and numeric
primitives and a real IO
backend. However, I will still listen to all feature
requests and if you strongly feel that Annah should be improved in some way
then feel free to open an issue.
Just keep in mind that Annah's primary focus is providing a small, clean, and easy to understand implementation that other people can easily learn from and fork to modify to their needs. That means that I will push back on anything that greatly complicates the implementation. Vice versa, anything that simplifies the implementation is very welcome!
I also welcome contributions to Annah's prelude which you can find here:
https://github.com/Gabriel439/HaskellAnnahLibrary/tree/master/Prelude
... and I will periodically upload versioned Preludes online here:
http://sigil.place/prelude/annah/
... so that people can import expressions directly within their own code by URL.
Development Status
Annah is heavily exercised by the Annah Prelude so most bugs should have been rooted out by this point. The most likely bugs that still remain at this point are in the desugaring logic not correctly avoiding name capture.
The most likely thing to change in the API is support for new desugaring rules if people request them and are willing to implement them.
License (BSD 3clause)
Copyright (c) 2016 Gabriel Gonzalez All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
Neither the name of Gabriel Gonzalez nor the names of other contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
*Note that all licence references and agreements mentioned in the annah README section above
are relevant to that project's source code only.